Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities (updated 2018)

Every few years, cities are rated ranked by the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute. It is considered the leading institute ranking world cities.

Cities are ranked into Alpha, Beta and Gamma cities by taking into account many factors; economic factors are deemed more important than cultural or political factors though in this ranking.

Here’s a list with the latest data from 2016 (GAWC hasn’t done a study in 2017 or 2018). Spotted by Locals’ cities (most of “our” 71 cities are listed) are linked.

Alpha++ world cities: London, New York

Alpha+ world cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Paris, Beijing, Tokyo, Dubai, Shanghai

Alpha world cities: Sydney, Sao Paulo, MilanChicago, Mexico City, Mumbai, MoscowFrankfurtMadrid, Warsaw, Johannesburg, Toronto, Seoul, Istanbul, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, AmsterdamBrusselsLos Angeles

Alpha− world cities:  Dublin, Melbourne, Washington, New Delhi, Bangkok, ZurichVienna, Taipei, Buenos Aires, Stockholm,  San Francisco, Guangzhou, Manila, Bogotá, Miami, Luxembourgh, Riyadh, Santiago, Barcelona, Tel Aviv, Lisbon,

Beta+ world cities: Prague, Ho Chi Minh City, Boston, Copenhagen, Düsseldorf, Athens, Munich, Atlanta, Bucharest, HelsinkiBudapestKievHamburg, Bangalore, RomeOslo, Dallas, Caïro, Houston, Lima, Lagos, Caracas, Auckland, Capetown
Beta world cities: Doha, Karachi, Nicosia, Geneva, Montevideo, BerlinMontreal, Abu Dhabi, Casablanca, Philadelphia, Vancouver, Shenzhen, Sofia, Perth, Hanoi, Beirut, Brisbane, Bratislava, Manama
Beta− world cities: Port Louis, Minneapolis, Chennai, Stuttgart, Santo Domingo, Rio de Janeiro, Kuwait City, Cheng du, Panama City, Denver, Lahore, Jeddah, Tunis, Quito, BelgradeSeattleManchester, Guatemala City, Lyon, San Jose, Tianjin, Calgary, Amman, San Juan, San Salvador, AntwerpZagreb, Kolkata, Tallinn, St Louis, Monterrey, Hyderabad, Edinburgh, San Diego, CologneRotterdam, Dhaka, Islamabad,

Gamma+ world cities: Guayaquil, Cleveland, Riga, Baku, Adelaide, Vilnius, Birmingham (UK), Glasgow, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Colombo, Porto, Qingdao, Valencia, Detroit,  Muscat, Osaka, Ljubljana, Kampala, Georgetown (CI), Managua, Durban, San Jose (US), St. Petersburg,

Gamma world cities: Phoenix, Tegucigalpa, Austin, Pune, Guadalajara, Dalian, Tbilisi , Dar es Salaam, Chongqing, Ankara, Lusaka, Ahmedabad, Cincinnatti, Asunción, Harare, Gothenburg, Xiamen, Mosul, Kansas City, Accra, Minsk, Tampa, Turin, Luanda, Abidjan, Tirana, Lausanne, Leeds

Gamma− world cities: Taichung, Charlotte, Baltimore, Raleigh, Belfast, Leipzig, Medellín, Wuhan, Duoala, Maputo, Skopje, Gaborone, Bristol, Orlando, Dakar, Suzhou, Malmö, Edmonton, Changsha, Strasbourg, Bilbao, Bologna, Columbus, Wellington, Nuremberg, Yangon, Xi’an, Krakow, Marseille, Dresden, Shenyang, Pittsburgh

The GAWC institute also created a very cool graphic of interconnectivity between these world cities (PDF, large!)

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Last Changed Date: 2016-05-19 11:45:13 +0200 (Thu, 19 May 2016)