I recently started to discover the Anatolian Side of the city “like a local”. The best advice I got was Pide-Sun. Pide can best be described as a local pizza, but with different ingredients on it like corn beef, minced meat, local cheese and many more.
This place is located very conveniently between Kadıköy and Moda, so it should be very close to the attractions you have on your list.
The portions served are very big, so I do recommend you share with friends. You can customize your pide however, the most popular is made with cheese & minced meat. You may want to ask them to add an egg on top.
Also, they serve homemade pickles, which are highly recommended. Oh and they do not serve any alcohol.